Gil Stein is an archaeologist whose fieldwork has investigated early civilizations on two continents and whose theoretical writings examine colonialism. Stein has excavated in Arizona, New Mexico and Syria, and since 1981, in Turkey. From 1992 through 1997, he directed excavations at Hacinebi, a Mesopotamian colony in Turkey, which is part of the world's first-known colonial system.
Comparing what he knew of Hacinebi with the ideas about colonialism that were then current led Stein to write Rethinking World Systems: Diasporas, Colonies, and Interaction in Uruk Mesopotamia (University of Arizona Press, 1999) to look at the world's earliest colonial system and see how it was different from the modern models. He also is the author of The Archaeology of Colonial Encounters: Comparative Perspectives (School of American Research Press, 2005).