Roth researches and publishes on the legal and social history of the ancient Near East. Her primary interests are on family law and on women’s legal and social issues, and on the compilation and transmission law norms. Among her monographic publications are The Series An-ta-gal = Saqu, Materials for the Sumerian Lexicon 17 (Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1985); Babylonian Marriage Agreements, 7th–3rd Centuries b.c., Alter Orient und Altes Testament 222 (Kevelaer: Butzon und Bercker, 1989); and Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, SBL Writings from the Ancient World (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1995; 2nd edition 1997; 2nd rev. edition 2000). Currently she is working on a project on Mesopotamian law cases.
She is editor-in-charge of the Oriental Institute's Chicago Assyrian Dictionary Project, which oversees compilation of the twenty-six volume CAD.